spi-flash 启动适配

对于从spi-flash启动系统,需要对 uboot / dts / 内核配置都有所修改,打包与烧写请参考 一键烧录及脚本使用说明

以下将以16M flash为例,介绍 spi flash 的适配过程。

分区规划

下表为分区规划表:

分区序号 分区大小 分区作用 地址空间及分区名
mtd0 1MB (0x100000) spl+uboot 0x0000000-0x0100000 : “uboot”
mtd1 64KB (0x10000) dtb文件 0x0100000-0x0110000 : “dtb”
mtd2 4MB (0x400000) linux内核 0x0110000-0x0510000 : “kernel”
mtd3 剩余 (0xAF0000) 根文件系统 0x0510000-0x1000000 : “rootfs”

uboot 修改

以下是对 uboot 进行适配的流程描述;

bootcmd修改

在uboot源码目录下 进入 ./include/configs/

修改 suniv.h
 #define CONFIG_BOOTCOMMAND   "sf probe 0:50000000; "                           \
                             "sf read 0x80C00000 0x100000 0x4000; "  \
                             "sf read 0x80008000 0x110000 0x400000; " \
                             "bootz 0x80008000 - 0x80C00000"

按照行数解释如下:

  1. 挂载 spi-flash
  2. 读取 spi-flash 1M(0x100000)位置 64KB(0x4000)大小的 dtb 到地址 0x80C00000
  3. 读取 spi-flash 1M+64K(0x110000)位置 4MB(0x400000)大小的 zImage 到地址 0x80008000
  4. 从 0x80008000 启动内核,从 0x80C00000 读取设备树配置

回到 uboot 源码一级目录,make ARCH=arm menuconfig 进入TUI配置;

取消勾选 [ ] Enable a default value for bootcmd

bootargs修改

勾选 [*] Enable boot arguments;

在下方一项中填入 bootargs 参数:

console=ttyS0,115200 panic=5 rootwait root=/dev/mtdblock3 rw rootfstype=jffs2

(root=/dev/mtdblock3 指的是mtd设备第三分区,分区指定在dts中声明)

dts 修改

修改内核源码目录下的 ./arch/arm/boot/dts/suniv-f1c100s-licheepi-nano.dts

&spi0 {
    pinctrl-names = "default";
    pinctrl-0 = <&spi0_pins_a>;
    status = "okay";
    spi-max-frequency = <50000000>;
    flash: w25q128@0 {
        #address-cells = <1>;
        #size-cells = <1>;
        compatible = "winbond,w25q128", "jedec,spi-nor";
        reg = <0>;
        spi-max-frequency = <50000000>;
        partitions {
            compatible = "fixed-partitions";
            #address-cells = <1>;
            #size-cells = <1>;

            partition@0 {
                label = "u-boot";
                reg = <0x000000 0x100000>;
                read-only;
            };

            partition@100000 {
                label = "dtb";
                reg = <0x100000 0x10000>;
                read-only;
            };

            partition@110000 {
                label = "kernel";
                reg = <0x110000 0x400000>;
                read-only;
            };

            partition@510000 {
                label = "rootfs";
                reg = <0x510000 0xAF0000>;
            };
        };
    };
};

此处在dts中为mtd设备预先划分好了分区内容,内核将会自动解析

另一种通过bootargs传递给内核进行解析分区信息的方法,请参考 Lichee Zero spi-flash 启动

内核配置修改

勾选 File systems ‣ Miscellaneous filesystems ‣ Journalling Flash File System v2 (JFFS2) support

https://box.kancloud.cn/3be64c60667c0aa3a906f095171d1fda_1396x746.png

jffs2

修改源码下的 ./drivers/mtd/spi-nor.c

修改对应spi-flash;如 w25q128 :

{ "w25q128", INFO(0xef4018, 0, 64 * 1024, 256, SECT_4K) },
// 修改为 (不使用sector,使用块擦除):
{ "w25q128", INFO(0xef4018, 0, 64 * 1024, 256, 0) },

二进制bin 打包

以16M 大小flash镜像打包脚本为例:

dd if=/dev/zero of=flashimg.bin bs=1M count=16 &&\
dd if=$YOUR_UBOOT_FILE of=flashimg.bin bs=1K conv=notrunc &&\
dd if=$YOUR_DTB_FILE of=flashimg.bin bs=1K seek=1024  conv=notrunc &&\
dd if=$YOUR_KERNEL_FILE of=flashimg.bin bs=1K seek=1088  conv=notrunc &&\
mkdir rootfs
tar -xzvf $YOUR_ROOTFS_FILE -C ./rootfs &&\
cp -r $YOUR_MOD_FILE  rootfs/lib/modules/ &&\
# 为根文件系统制作jffs2镜像包
# --pad参数指定 jffs2大小
# 由此计算得到 0x1000000(16M)-0x10000(64K)-0x100000(1M)-0x400000(4M)=0xAF0000
mkfs.jffs2 -s 0x100 -e 0x10000 --pad=0xAF0000 -d rootfs/ -o jffs2.img &&\
dd if=jffs2.img of=$YOUR_IMG_FILE  bs=1K seek=5184  conv=notrunc &&\

以上脚本通过对一个生成的16M空bin文件填充 uboot、dtb、kernel、rootfs 生成 16M 镜像,如需修改,请注意各个文件的大小,修改成对应地址(注意对齐)。

至此,SPI系统各部分已编译完成,通过sunxi-fel进行烧写即可;

bin 烧录

sudo sunxi-fel -p spiflash-write $YOUR_IMG_FILE

或请参考镜像包中的 write_flash.sh 烧录脚本;

启动后使用 账号:root 密码:licheepi 登录

交流与答疑

对于本节内容,如有疑问,欢迎到 SPI Flash 系统编译交流帖 提问或分享经验。

附录 1.启动日志

U-Boot 2018.01-05676-g00188782ee-dirty (May 19 2018 - 10:15:50 +0800) Allwinner Technology

CPU:   Allwinner F Series (SUNIV)
Model: Lichee Pi Nano
DRAM:  32 MiB
Using default environment

Setting up a 480x272 lcd console (overscan 0x0)
In:    serial@1c25000
Out:   serial@1c25000
Err:   serial@1c25000
Net:   No ethernet found.
starting USB...
No controllers found
Hit any key to stop autoboot:  0
SF: Detected w25q128bv with page size 256 Bytes, erase size 64 KiB, total 16 MiB
device 0 offset 0x100000, size 0x4000
SF: 16384 bytes @ 0x100000 Read: OK
device 0 offset 0x110000, size 0x400000
SF: 4194304 bytes @ 0x110000 Read: OK
## Flattened Device Tree blob at 80c00000
Booting using the fdt blob at 0x80c00000
Loading Device Tree to 80e4c000, end 80e511c8 ... OK

Starting kernel ...

[    0.000000] Booting Linux on physical CPU 0x0
[    0.000000] Linux version 4.15.0-next-20180202-licheepi-nano+ (biglion@biglion-MRC-WX0) (gcc version 7.2.0 (Ubuntu/Linaro 7.2.8
[    0.000000] CPU: ARM926EJ-S [41069265] revision 5 (ARMv5TEJ), cr=0005317f
[    0.000000] CPU: VIVT data cache, VIVT instruction cache
[    0.000000] OF: fdt: Machine model: Lichee Pi Nano
[    0.000000] Memory policy: Data cache writeback
[    0.000000] random: fast init done
[    0.000000] Built 1 zonelists, mobility grouping on.  Total pages: 8128
[    0.000000] Kernel command line: console=ttyS0,115200 panic=5 rootwait root=/dev/mtdblock3 rw rootfstype=jffs2
[    0.000000] Dentry cache hash table entries: 4096 (order: 2, 16384 bytes)
[    0.000000] Inode-cache hash table entries: 2048 (order: 1, 8192 bytes)
[    0.000000] Memory: 23752K/32768K available (5120K kernel code, 203K rwdata, 1148K rodata, 1024K init, 227K bss, 9016K reserve)
[    0.000000] Virtual kernel memory layout:
[    0.000000]     vector  : 0xffff0000 - 0xffff1000   (   4 kB)
[    0.000000]     fixmap  : 0xffc00000 - 0xfff00000   (3072 kB)
[    0.000000]     vmalloc : 0xc2800000 - 0xff800000   ( 976 MB)
[    0.000000]     lowmem  : 0xc0000000 - 0xc2000000   (  32 MB)
[    0.000000]     pkmap   : 0xbfe00000 - 0xc0000000   (   2 MB)
[    0.000000]     modules : 0xbf000000 - 0xbfe00000   (  14 MB)
[    0.000000]       .text : 0x(ptrval) - 0x(ptrval)   (6112 kB)
[    0.000000]       .init : 0x(ptrval) - 0x(ptrval)   (1024 kB)
[    0.000000]       .data : 0x(ptrval) - 0x(ptrval)   ( 204 kB)
[    0.000000]        .bss : 0x(ptrval) - 0x(ptrval)   ( 228 kB)
[    0.000000] SLUB: HWalign=32, Order=0-3, MinObjects=0, CPUs=1, Nodes=1
[    0.000000] NR_IRQS: 16, nr_irqs: 16, preallocated irqs: 16
[    0.000046] sched_clock: 32 bits at 24MHz, resolution 41ns, wraps every 89478484971ns
[    0.000110] clocksource: timer: mask: 0xffffffff max_cycles: 0xffffffff, max_idle_ns: 79635851949 ns
[    0.000639] Console: colour dummy device 80x30
[    0.000726] Calibrating delay loop... 239.61 BogoMIPS (lpj=1198080)
[    0.070218] pid_max: default: 32768 minimum: 301
[    0.070625] Mount-cache hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.070670] Mountpoint-cache hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.071979] CPU: Testing write buffer coherency: ok
[    0.073630] Setting up static identity map for 0x80100000 - 0x80100058
[    0.075957] devtmpfs: initialized
[    0.082006] clocksource: jiffies: mask: 0xffffffff max_cycles: 0xffffffff, max_idle_ns: 19112604462750000 ns
[    0.082069] futex hash table entries: 256 (order: -1, 3072 bytes)
[    0.082348] pinctrl core: initialized pinctrl subsystem
[    0.084280] NET: Registered protocol family 16
[    0.085543] DMA: preallocated 256 KiB pool for atomic coherent allocations
[    0.087223] cpuidle: using governor menu
[    0.105860] SCSI subsystem initialized
[    0.106112] pps_core: LinuxPPS API ver. 1 registered
[    0.106138] pps_core: Software ver. 5.3.6 - Copyright 2005-2007 Rodolfo Giometti <giometti@linux.it>
[    0.106201] PTP clock support registered
[    0.107872] clocksource: Switched to clocksource timer
[    0.133110] NET: Registered protocol family 2
[    0.134463] tcp_listen_portaddr_hash hash table entries: 512 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.134531] TCP established hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.134585] TCP bind hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.134629] TCP: Hash tables configured (established 1024 bind 1024)
[    0.134920] UDP hash table entries: 256 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.134977] UDP-Lite hash table entries: 256 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.135483] NET: Registered protocol family 1
[    0.137139] NetWinder Floating Point Emulator V0.97 (double precision)
[    0.139083] Initialise system trusted keyrings
[    0.139624] workingset: timestamp_bits=30 max_order=13 bucket_order=0
[    0.152741] jffs2: version 2.2. (NAND) �© 2001-2006 Red Hat, Inc.
[    0.166082] Key type asymmetric registered
[    0.166121] Asymmetric key parser 'x509' registered
[    0.166350] Block layer SCSI generic (bsg) driver version 0.4 loaded (major 251)
[    0.166381] io scheduler noop registered
[    0.166397] io scheduler deadline registered
[    0.167159] io scheduler cfq registered (default)
[    0.167198] io scheduler mq-deadline registered
[    0.167216] io scheduler kyber registered
[    0.178208] suniv-pinctrl 1c20800.pinctrl: initialized sunXi PIO driver
[    0.337019] Serial: 8250/16550 driver, 8 ports, IRQ sharing disabled
[    0.343487] console [ttyS0] disabled
[    0.363782] 1c25000.serial: ttyS0 at MMIO 0x1c25000 (irq = 24, base_baud = 6250000) is a 16550A
[    0.783896] console [ttyS0] enabled
[    0.794166] panel-simple panel: panel supply power not found, using dummy regulator
[    0.803443] SCSI Media Changer driver v0.25
[    0.811012] m25p80 spi0.0: w25q128 (16384 Kbytes)
[    0.815738] spi0.0: parsing partitions cmdlinepart
[    0.821589] spi0.0: got parser (null)
[    0.825276] spi0.0: parsing partitions ofpart
[    0.829740] spi0.0: got parser ofpart
[    0.833455] spi0.0: parser ofpart: 4
[    0.837028] 4 ofpart partitions found on MTD device spi0.0
[    0.842567] Creating 4 MTD partitions on "spi0.0":
[    0.847372] 0x000000000000-0x000000100000 : "u-boot"
[    0.854799] 0x000000100000-0x000000110000 : "dtb"
[    0.861985] 0x000000110000-0x000000510000 : "kernel"
[    0.869390] 0x000000510000-0x000001000000 : "rootfs"
[    0.877118] i2c /dev entries driver
[    0.909420] sunxi-mmc 1c0f000.mmc: base:0xba9bd67d irq:20
[    0.917713] NET: Registered protocol family 17
[    0.922406] Key type dns_resolver registered
[    0.928846] Loading compiled-in X.509 certificates
[    0.942725] sun4i-drm display-engine: bound 1e60000.display-backend (ops 0xc0633630)
[    0.950770] sun4i-tcon 1c0c000.lcd-controller: Missing LVDS properties, Please upgrade your DT
[    0.959464] sun4i-tcon 1c0c000.lcd-controller: LVDS output disabled
[    0.966603] sun4i-drm display-engine: bound 1c0c000.lcd-controller (ops 0xc0632848)
[    0.974412] [drm] Supports vblank timestamp caching Rev 2 (21.10.2013).
[    0.981082] [drm] No driver support for vblank timestamp query.
[    1.015308] mmc0: queuing unknown CIS tuple 0x01 (3 bytes)
[    1.022825] mmc0: queuing unknown CIS tuple 0x1a (5 bytes)
[    1.026082] mmc0: queuing unknown CIS tuple 0x1b (8 bytes)
[    1.033931] Console: switching to colour frame buffer device 60x34
[    1.035256] mmc0: queuing unknown CIS tuple 0x80 (1 bytes)
[    1.035333] mmc0: queuing unknown CIS tuple 0x81 (1 bytes)
[    1.035398] mmc0: queuing unknown CIS tuple 0x82 (1 bytes)
[    1.035458] mmc0: new high speed SDIO card at address 0001
[    1.095728] sun4i-drm display-engine: fb0:  frame buffer device
[    1.102801] [drm] Initialized sun4i-drm 1.0.0 20150629 for display-engine on minor 0
[    1.111292] cfg80211: Loading compiled-in X.509 certificates for regulatory database
[    1.127244] cfg80211: Loaded X.509 cert 'sforshee: 00b28ddf47aef9cea7'
[    1.135027] platform regulatory.0: Direct firmware load for regulatory.db failed with error -2
[    1.143760] cfg80211: failed to load regulatory.db
[    1.220764] random: crng init done
[    3.486017] VFS: Mounted root (jffs2 filesystem) on device 31:3.
[    3.493872] devtmpfs: mounted
[    3.501502] Freeing unused kernel memory: 1024K
[   11.022364] esp8089: module is from the staging directory, the quality is unknown, you have been warned.
[   11.039883]
[   11.039883] ***** EAGLE DRIVER VER:bdf5087c3deb*****
[   11.039883]
[   11.050727] esp_sdio_dummy_probe enter
[   11.268002] esp_sdio_init power up OK
[   11.733562] esp_host:bdf5087c3deb
[   11.733562] esp_target: e826c2b3c9fd 57 18202
[   11.733562]
[   11.743109] first normal exit
[   11.746382] esp_sdio_remove enter
[   11.750154] sif_disable_irq release irq failed
[   11.868249] eagle_sdio: probe of mmc0:0001:1 failed with error -110
ifconfig: SIOCGIFFLAGS: No such device
Starting logging: OK
Initializing random number generator... done.
[   12.568573] mmc0: card 0001 removed

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